Sunday, May 24, 2020

Pink-Collar Ghetto for Women

The term â€Å"pink-collar ghetto† means that many women are stuck in certain jobs, mostly low-paying jobs, and usually because of their sex. â€Å"Ghetto† is used figuratively to evoke an area where people are marginalized, often for economic and social reasons. â€Å"Pink-collar† denotes jobs historically held only by women (maid, secretary, waitress, etc.)   The Pink-Collar Ghetto   The Women’s Liberation Movement brought about many changes for the acceptance of women in the workplace throughout the 1970s. However, sociologists still observed a pink-collar workforce, and women still did not earn as much as men overall. The term pink-collar ghetto reflected this discrepancy and revealed one of the major ways women were at a disadvantage in society.   Pink-Collar vs. Blue-Collar Jobs Sociologists and feminist theorists who wrote about the pink-collar workforce observed that pink-collar jobs often required less education and paid less than white-collar office jobs, but also paid less than blue-collar jobs typically held by men. The blue-collar jobs (construction, mining, manufacturing, etc.) required less formal education than white-collar jobs, but the men who held blue-collar jobs were often unionized and tended to receive better pay than the women stuck in the pink-collar ghetto. The Feminization of Poverty The phrase was used in a 1983 work by Karin Stallard, Barbara Ehrenreich and Holly Sklar called Poverty in the American Dream: Women and Children First. The authors analyzed the feminization of poverty and the fact that the increased number of women in the workforce were largely working the same jobs as they had since the previous century.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

My Political Ideology - 1142 Words

My New Political Ideology A populations views on political issues may change as different circumstances occur each day. The environment around us has a powerful influence on the decisions that we produce and the views that we as American citizens choose to hold. After a semester in political science class my views and my political ideology have altered. Today I will explain how political science class has influenced my political ideology. When this class initially began I was sure, without a doubt I was a conservative. As the semester progressed I discovered the reasons I was considered conservative. The town a person grows up in, financial status, social class, age, gender and the race of the individual have a strong influence on a†¦show more content†¦As I stated in my last paper, schooling is very important to the success of our country. Although there are people that will argue that school should not be mandatory if the family must send there children to work to provide money for housing, I would have to disagree. Since there are social programs for providing food and shelter, education should not be neglected. When education is neglected, those children have a chance of becoming burdens to society rather than benefits. School develops leaders and followers of society, and provides a structure for those who may need it in their lives. After a semester in political science class, I found that many of the liberals in my class did not know very much about the issues that made them liberals. Since the class is an introduction to the American political system, that fact did not bother me as much as it normally would. Since the issue of media was hot topic to talk about, I thought that most of the students in my class had realized the medias bad reviews of conservatives. Unfortunlty that was not the case, Most of students denied that the media was liberal until proven to them. I cannot blame the students in my class for the things they have been taught by television. A lack of education is to blame for that problem. By now you know that media is one of the issues that I have added to my new paper. I found that the media has made many individualsShow MoreRelated My New Political Ideology Essay1142 Words   |  5 Pages  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A population’s views on political issues may change as different circumstanc es occur each day. The environment around us has a powerful influence on the decisions that we produce and the views that we as American citizens choose to hold. After a semester in political science class my views and my political ideology have altered. Today I will explain how political science class has influenced my political ideology.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When this class initially began I was sure, without a doubt I was a conservativeRead MoreThe Political Ideology That Best Represents My Views1368 Words   |  6 PagesThe political ideology that best represents my views is liberalism. Liberalism is an ideology that emphasizes, â€Å"cultural diversity, government programs for the needy, public intervention in the economy, and individuals’ rights to a lifestyle based on their own social and moral positions† (Morone Kersh, 2014, p. 37). In other words, liberalism promotes government assistance for individuals in need as well as protect every individual’s rights. One aspect of my life that has shaped my political viewsRead MorePolitical Identity Essay1064 Words   |  5 PagesEveryone has their own political identity made up of a mixture of multiple opinions and ideologies. The four main factors that go into someone’s political identity are their ethnic identity, national identity, political attitude, and political ideology. I decided to interview my mom and figure out a little bit about her political identity and how she stands on certain topics. The first factor of someone’s political identity is their ethnic identity. According to Essentials of Comparative PoliticsRead MoreI Am A Liberal Conservative Is More Open Minded Than Some Other Political Ideologies Essay1530 Words   |  7 PagesI am a Liberal. A Liberal is more open minded than some other political ideologies. They believe we should all be equal and have the same opportunities in life. The government should help us so we can all be financially stable. Things like health care and food stamps are important because the government should help all of us, if we cannot do that for ourselves. Although liberals want help from the government they don’t believe they should control what we do in our personal lives. They are very bigRead MoreWhat is Political Socialization? Essay563 Words   |  3 PagesPolitical Socialization The presidential and congressional elections come down to the two main parties except for some congressional seats where independents may win an election. Many times voters mainly vote based on which party they affiliate with most and may not understand the candidate’s views on issues. The two parties do not encompass all of one person’s political views. To understand why a person votes a certain way is to understand their political ideology and how a person comes to theirRead MoreExamples Of Political Socialization825 Words   |  4 Pages Political socialization is something that goes unnoticed for a while until you realize what your political views are and why they are that way. Political Socialization can be defined as the lifelong process by which people form their ideas about politics and acquire political values. This process can be influenced by several factors such as what our peers think and what see on the news. These factors will shape an individualâ€⠄¢s set of political attitudes and form opinions about social issues. PoliticalRead MorePolitical Ideology Essay1274 Words   |  6 PagesPolitical Ideology Essay Through out the past there have been many different forms of political ideology. With all theses different types of government you have to wonder sometimes which one of theses forms of government would be the best to run the ideal society. In this paper I will compare and contrast; liberalism, social democracy, fascism, communism, and anarchy. Also I will give my opinion on which one of these forms of government would be the most ideal to run a modern day county or societyRead MoreCitizen Participation : An Individual Choice956 Words   |  4 Pagesto a family who shares a political ideology, then the likelihood the family encourages and raises the child under their same beliefs is greater than not. For example, if a child’s parents hold more liberal views, then the way the child is raised reflects and encourages his or her parents’ liberal views. On the other hand, if a child is brought up in a household where his or her parents do not vote or participate in voicing t heir opinions, then that encouragement of political engagement is not availableRead MoreThe Political Of Political Globalization938 Words   |  4 Pagesparts: economic, political, and cultural. This essay will be focusing in the political part of globalization. When it comes to the topic political globalization, we tend to think of countries coming together to discuss global issues that are affecting every single individual in this world. Indeed, it is true, political globalization can be seen in several aspects, from the cooperation of countries to the domination of others. In this essay, I will focus in the dominant aspect of political globalizationRead MoreAnalysis Of Marjane Satrapi s Persepolis 1425 Words   |  6 PagesPresidential election vividly. My parents were staunch Kerry supporters and so was I. That year I spent numerous summer days walking with my parents in parades and attending rallies in support of Democratic candidates. I may only have been seven, but I view this as the begging of my political ideology and attachment to politics. While too often society dismisses children’s understanding of the world, specifically politics, decades of research in the research field of political socialization has traced

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Alcoholism Research Paper - 725 Words

There has been numerous studies conducted on the productiveness of treatments for alcoholics. The first effective anti-alcoholism medication was found in 1994 and has become more known today. Currently the diseases of alcoholism are more treatable and in some cases curable thanks to the creation and efficacy of specific medications geared for recovering alcoholics. Anti-alcoholism medications such as naltrexone work exquisitely well. A study conducted by the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in 1994 showed that naltrexone is capable of treating alcoholism long term even after the patients stop the treatment. This drug decreases the craving of alcohol and it can cease the pleasant affiliations with alcohol. Alcoholics who†¦show more content†¦She suggested that other doctors extend the period of treatment beyond twelve weeks for more critical patients (Pfeiffer, 1996). In 2000, a physician named Olivier Ameisen relapsed and went on a drinking binge. After his rese arch on a drug called baclofen he was in hope that it would help his addiction to alcohol. Dr. Ameisen later ran into a problem when no other doctors would prescribe this medication to him because they were skeptical of it’s efficacy. After some thought Dr. Ameisen decided that he had no other choice but to self-prescribe baclofen and within thirty seven days he saw improvement on his dependency of alcohol. By 2008, Ameisen saw such improvement that he started agreeing to prescribe baclofen of high doses to his alcoholic patients. Many alcoholics and their family members along with their close friends are attracted to the idea that one of many types of medications are able to treat alcoholism. Although, many other physicians are doubtful about these anti-alcoholism drugs there are still many that see a future being formed with these type of medications (Penn, 2010). An alcoholic patient named Martin was one of the worst cases that Dr. Ameisen tried to help. Before Martin star ted taking medication he would go into withdrawal if he didn’t drink at a certain time. He even said â€Å"when I’m sober, I’m terribly fearful and anxious† which is no way to live. WheneverShow MoreRelatedHandle Alcoholism Research Paper1180 Words   |  5 PagesHow to Handle Alcoholism Whether you are trying to get your own drinking under control or be a source of support for a loved one, handling alcoholism can be quite a challenge. However, millions of people have recovered from alcoholism, so can you or your loved one! Start by limiting access to alcohol and making sure the person has plenty of support, too. You can also increase your chances of staying away from alcohol by implementing positive lifestyle habits. ==Steps== ===Reducing Drinking Habits===Read MoreAlcoholism And Dependency Of Alcoholism924 Words   |  4 PagesThis paper analyzes five peer-reviewed articles and fact supported from books discussing about the disorder, which also includes, scholarly reference executed through research studies. The study was conducted through online and offline sources. The research study that will be the main focus of this paper will be on alcoholism and topics discussed on the dependency of alcoholism. One will come across with articles having different discuss on the effects, use of and dependency of alcoholism. TheRead MoreKatherine Moran. Health Psychology Research Review. May1197 Words   |  5 PagesKatherine Moran Health Psychology Research Review May 7, 2017 HOW ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AFFECTS COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN CASES OF BOTH LONG- AND SHORT-TERM USAGE The social culture of college in America often has an underlying foundation of binge drinking. Out of the 60 percent of American college students who drink regularly, two-thirds of these students also report engaging in frequent binge-drinking (NIAAA, 2015). While students may be aware of some of the short-term consequences of engagingRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcoholism On The United States1383 Words   |  6 Pages Ariel Herrera Alcoholism in the United States Alcoholism has been a societal issue that does not discriminate in terms of boarders. Although it is an international problem, this paper will focus on its implications in the United States of America. Alcoholism is defined as an obsession or addiction to the intake of alcoholic liquor or the mental illness and behavior resulting from alcohol reliance (Adewale and Ifudu 2014). This paper analysis the demographic differences in alcohol engagementRead MoreChildhood Alcoholism And The Effect Of The 12 Step Program For Alcoholics Anonymous As A Form Of Treatment1147 Words   |  5 PagesJane Kwon PSY 4470 June 5, 2015 Research Paper Alcoholism is a growing problem in the United States. It can, and oftentimes does, result in illnesses and deaths. â€Å"Alcohol is the world’s third largest risk factor for disease and contributes to 4 [percent] of the global burden of disease† (Marshall, 2014). In relation to alcoholism, specifically adolescent alcoholism is a growing concern in the United States. The age at which young people are starting to experiment with alcohol is younger than everRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcoholism On Family, Children, And The Individuals Suffering From Alcoholism988 Words   |  4 Pagestoday, alcoholism. I am sure that even if your life is not directly affected by the disease, you are at least a little familiar with the basics. In this paper I plan to give you a brief understanding of the three basic issues you should be informed upon so you can make better decisions involving alcohol in the future. First, I will discuss who is at the most risk of falling victim to alcoholism , second, I will discuss the symptoms of alcoholism, and finally I will discuss the impact alcoholism has onRead MoreAlcoholism : A Silent Killer1624 Words   |  7 Pagesalcohol for my reaction paper. This subject hits home for me. Alcoholism is a silent killer in today’s society. Research proves that alcoholism effects the whole family from the inside out. Alcoholism within a family recreates unhealthy family roles in order to help adapt to living with an alcoholic. The alcoholic becomes the focal point in a family; which causes lasting effects. Alcoholism is a disease that destroy families when they are not appropriately addressed. This paper focuses on three points;Read MoreA Research Study On Prevention1432 Words   |  6 PagesIn my research I’ve found that prevention is the key to treatment. Here are some suggestions that I propose. Firstly, I suggest that the communities of San Juan County work together to educate the youth early and de-romanticize the drinking experience by having Al anon speakers, speak about the dangers. Real life experiences are proven to hold a greater impact on an audience rather than just some literature. There are 37 states so far to require some sort of drug and alcohol prevention in the classroomsRead MoreCharacteristics Of Alcoholic Parents And How Alcohol Dependency May Influences Their Children s Well Being1725 Words   |  7 PagesHaving one or two parents that suffer from alcoholism can affect many aspects of a child’s well-being. The consumption of alcohol can alter a person’s thought process and decision making. When a parent has a dependency on alcohol, it affects the decision making not only in their life, but the life of their child’s. An addiction to alcoholism can change the parent’s parenting style in the moment of consumption and in between a lcohol consumption, whiles they are sober. Children of alcoholics (COA’s)Read MoreAlcoholism and Alcohol Abuse1492 Words   |  6 Pages The total annual mortality rates due to alcohol-related accidents and health issues are close to 35,000† (â€Å"Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse). This fact explains how many problems come along with alcohol abuse, and tell about health issues and accidents that could be caused by alcohol. Alcohol can be very dangerous and threaten the lives of people even if they are not the one consuming alcohol. Wrecks often happen and kill innocent people as a result of people drinking and driving. There are many

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Management of Human Resources

Question: Discuss about the Management of Human Resources. Answer: Introduction Human Resource Management (HRM) deals with management of human resources towards extracting the best from the employees (DeNisi, Wilson and Biteman 2014). It is mostly associated with recruitment and selection, training and development, performance management, employee motivation, compensation planning, maintaining employee relation and employee security (Sultana 2014). This study will agree with the statement that there is no such thing as 'best practice' in HRM. The study will prove this statement through defining various elements human resource practice in the context of different business needs. Moreover, the study will also be real life evidence for proving this statement. Discussion There is no single set of definitive practice and rules for working living and anything else in the life. Likewise, Human Resource Management (HRM) cannot be different. HRM plays an important role in achieving the success of an organization. It can extract the best out of the employees, if right strategy is implemented at the right place (Harley 2015). People are extremely tempted and willing to resolve any issues with the best practice model. However, best practice model in HRM always focuses on one-size-fit approach, which does permit adaptability. Furthermore, todays business environment is highly dynamic in nature. Therefore, the HRM strategy should always be adaptable with the changing nature of the business. Hence, it can be said that there is no such thing as 'best practice' in HRM. Contemporary HRM practices have been founded by the year 1970 with its new ideas and concepts. According to Brewster, Brookes and Gollan (2015), contemporary human resource practice is more flexible and adaptable with the changing needs of the business. On the other hand, Vanhala and Ritala (2016) opined that the idea of contemporary human resource management is to optimize the employees towards meeting the strategic objectives of organization. The increasing nature of agility of contemporary business has led the human resource managers to rely on contingency approach. Rather than sticking to a particular HRM strategy model, todays human resource managers are always inclined to explore innovative strategy for aligning the best efforts of the employees with the strategic organizational objectives (Edwards et al. 2013). They are trying to be freed from the restrictions and concentrating on that model, which suites them the best at particular point of time. The best HRM practice proved for one organization cannot be fruitful for the other. Hence, HRM strategies are always needed to be tailored with the particular needs of the business. While considering the recruitment or talent acquisition practice of organization, there cannot be any such best practice model. Moreover, the recruitment managers need to tailor their strategies through with the specific needs and demands of their organization. However, all the organizations like to select the best candidate for their businesses. According to Paill et al. (2014), different business organizations need to have employees having different set of skills, knowledge and expertise. In case of recruitment practice of Google, the organization always focuses on technical skill, knowledge and expertise of the employees. The platform of the business is wholly built upon technical aspects, where the prime need of the employees is technical skill. Hence, they always need to be concentrated on hiring the employees having high level of technical knowledge (Sheehan 2014). On the other, in case of recruitment practice of mass media and entertainment conglomerate Disney, the organization always focuses on artistic mind of the employees. The platform of Disney is fully built upon creative artistic knowledge of the employees. Therefore, the prime criteria of its recruitment strategy to assess the creativity power of the employees (Ma and Ye 2015). Therefore, there is no such best practice for HRM. Todays business environment is highly competitive in nature. Organizations can beat the market competition based on either of three strategies such as cost leadership, quality and focus. Human resource management practice has to do a lot for implementing these strategies. In case of cost leadership, organizations are likely to beat the market competition through reducing product price and reducing the organizational cost. In this extent, human resource managers need to reduce the cost of recruitment and other HR budget for minimizing the overall organizational cost (Marler and Fisher 2013). However, the strategy for reducing HR budget cannot be same for different organizations. As per Chang et al. (2014), the popular food and beverage company Coca-Cola Amatil is more inclined to hire their employees from international market like Indonesia for low labor cost of the country. In this way, they are quite successful reducing the organizational cost and achieve cost leadership. On the other hand, the retail giant Woolworth uses different strategy for reducing HR costs. Fulmer and Ployhart (2014) opined that Woolworth uses employee referrals for recruiting new employees in reduced cost. In this strategy, the organization gets employee references for hiring best candidate for the organization with reduced cost. In this way, the organization tries to achieve cost leadership towards achieving competitive advantage. Hence, again, there is no such best practice in human resource management. While considering the quality leadership in business, an organization always needs innovation and creativity at each step of its business process. According to Boxall (2013), human resource practice has huge role in flourishing the innovative ideas and creativity power of the employees towards achieving business innovation. On the other hand, Vaiman and Collings (2013) opined that effective of innovation is highly dependent on tailored HRM strategy to extract innovative ideas for meeting the changing needs of the markets. Moreover, employee innovation only comes, when they are highly motivated towards achieving the organizational success. It is highly dependent on the quality of leadership, which the employees face in their workplace. In case of motivational strategies, the organizational leaders are to identify the internal motivating factors of the employees. Motivating factors are quite different from one employee to other. Hence, the leadership and motivational tools also should be customized with the needs of the employees. While considering the example of MYOB, the organization mostly motivates the employees through providing them lucrative reward to the top performing employees. The employees of this organization are only motivated through monetary rewards towards enhancing their performance. Hence, after appraising the performance of the employees, the leaders provide lucrative reward to the top performers. It motivates the employees towards providing more effort and incorporating their creativity in the organizational success (Cerdin and Brewster 2014). On the other hand, the employees of Commonwealth Bank are highly motivated through recognition. Hence, the leaders of this organization have to mostly rely on praising the contribution of the employees in organizational success. They are more concentrated on succession planning for the employees towards their motivation and enhancing performance (Alfes et al. 2013). This comparison also proves that there cannot be any best practice for human resource management. In case of weak performers, who are identified in the performance assessment process, there is a need for enhancing their skills and abilities for meeting organizational objectives. According to Sultana (2014), training and development programs should always cover the basic as well as the set of good foundation for employee development. On the other hand, Vanhala and Ritala (2016) opined that covering only the basics can leave the employees short on their skills, as the content of the training program cannot connect back to the specific skills needed for their specific job roles and responsibilities. This situation has raised the needs for customizing the training and development programs as per the specific needs of the employees in different sectors. Moreover, there is not best practice of training and development program for developing the skills level of the employees. While considering the example of Sausage Software of Australia, the prime skill needed for the employees is technical skill. Therefore, the human resource managers of the organization mostly provide technical training to the employees towards producing best quality web editing tools. This type of training develops the technical skills of the employees, who have limited technical knowledge for fulfilling the specific technical needs of the organization (Sheehan 2014). On the other hand, the prime skill needed for the employees of Coles Supermarket is client interaction skills. It needs the development of interpersonal skills among the employees of the organization. Hence, this organization provides interpersonal training to the employees for enhancing the client interaction skills towards meeting the organizational objectives (Fulmer and Ployhart 2014). The nature of human resource management can also be varied control of leaders. According Vaiman and Collings (2013) the organizations, which are only productivity oriented, are more inclined to practice hard human resource practice in their leadership. The leaders of these organizations use to force the employees towards more and more productivity with no or little welling programs for the employees. Moreover, the leaders in these organizations are mostly autocratic in nature having huge control over the employees. For instance, the leaders of Wesfarmers are highly productivity oriented. Hence, the leaders of this organization use to follow hard human resource strategy for managing their employees and keeping them highly productive (Edwards et al. 2013). On the other hand, Marler and Fisher (2013) opined that the organizations, which are more quality oriented, are more inclined to practice soft human resource management. The leaders of these organizations always give priority to the needs and wellbeing of the employees. Moreover, they practice democratic leadership in their human resource management. Hence, employees are highly encouraged to put their efficiency in their jobs towards achieving organizational efficiency. For instance, the leaders of Cotton On use to practice soft HRM practice for having quality design in their cloths from the efforts of the employees (Paill et al. 2014). Moreover, the leadership styles cannot be same for all types of organizations and it varies from one organization to other depending on their needs. While considering the employee health security of different organizations, the strategies of employee health and safety should also be customized as per the business process of the organizations. Depending on the nature of the business process, there are different types of health and safety issues for the employees in different sector. In case of retail sectors, there are limited possibilities of employee health hazards, which can damage the health of the employees. On the other hand, in case of mining and chemical sectors, there are high chances of health hazards for the employees working in the workplace. However, health hazard like fire, infections are violence are very common in all kind of organizations. The security measures commonly adopted for retail employees are in terms of prevention for slips and trips, reducing manual handling of products and prevention measures for possible violence (Ma and Ye 2015). However, the employees in mining and chemical sector are most likely to face workplace hazards in terms of flammable atmosphere, ignition sources, contaminated chemicals and lots more. Hence, the HR manager of these sectors should be more concentrated on the health security strategy of the employees than the retail sector. There should be explosion venting, explosion suppression and avoidance of ignition sources (Chang et al. 2014). It again proves the same statement that there is no such best practice in human resource management. Conclusion While concluding the study, it can be said that there is there is no such thing as 'best practice' in HRM.One-size-fit approach is quite traditional in human resource management and it can be fit in todays business environment. Todays business organizations are more focused on providing customized products and service for beating the market competition. In such situation, the strategies for human resource management should also be customized for extracting the innovating ideas from them and meeting the dynamic needs of the customers. In case of skills development programs, the HR managers should specifically focus on the core organizational needs and then design the programs. In such extent, with different organizational needs in different sector, the training and development needs are also need to be different. Apart from that, the motivational factor for employees also varies from one employee to other depending on their needs. Hence, the motivational strategies of the organization s can also be different based on either reward strategy or recognition strategy. Apart from that, depending on the business needs, some organizations are highly productivity oriented and some others are highly employee oriented. In this way, the human resource practice is also different as per those business needs. References Alfes, K., Truss, C., Soane, E.C., Rees, C. and Gatenby, M., 2013. The relationship between line manager behavior, perceived HRM practices, and individual performance: Examining the mediating role of engagement.Human resource management,52(6), pp.839-859. Boxall, P., 2013. Mutuality in the management of human resources: assessing the quality of alignment in employment relationships.Human Resource Management Journal,23(1), pp.3-17. Brewster, C., Brookes, M. and Gollan, P.J., 2015. The institutional antecedents of the assignment of HRM responsibilities to line managers.Human Resource Management,54(4), pp.577-597. Cerdin, J.L. and Brewster, C., 2014. Talent management and expatriation: Bridging two streams of research and practice.Journal of World Business,49(2), pp.245-252. Chang, S., Jia, L., Takeuchi, R. and Cai, Y., 2014. Do high-commitment work systems affect creativity? A multilevel combinational approach to employee creativity.Journal of Applied Psychology,99(4), p.665. DeNisi, A.S., Wilson, M.S. and Biteman, J., 2014. Research and practice in HRM: A historical perspective.Human Resource Management Review,24(3), pp.219-231. Edwards, P. K., Snchez-Mangas, R., Tregaskis, O., Levesque, C., McDonnell, A., Quintanilla, J. (2013). Human resource management practices in the multinational company: A test of system, societal, and dominance effects.ILR Review,66(3), 588-617. Fulmer, I.S. and Ployhart, R.E., 2014. Our Most Important Asset A Multidisciplinary/Multilevel Review of Human Capital Valuation for Research and Practice.Journal of Management,40(1), pp.161-192. Harley, B., 2015. The one best way?Scientificresearch on HRM and the threat to critical scholarship.Human Resource Management Journal,25(4), pp.399-407. Ma, L. and Ye, M., 2015. The Role of Electronic Human Resource Management in Contemporary Human Resource Management.Open Journal of Social Sciences,3(04), p.71. Marler, J.H. and Fisher, S.L., 2013. An evidence-based review of e-HRM and strategic human resource management.Human Resource Management Review,23(1), pp.18-36. Paill, P., Chen, Y., Boiral, O. and Jin, J., 2014. The impact of human resource management on environmental performance: An employee-level study.Journal of Business Ethics,121(3), pp.451-466. Sheehan, M., 2014. Human resource management and performance: Evidence from small and medium-sized firms.International Small Business Journal,32(5), pp.545-570. Sultana, S., 2014. An empirical study on Human Resource Management (HRM) practices on employees performance.International Journal of Management, IT and Engineering,4(4), p.290. Vaiman, V. and Collings, D.G., 2013. Talent management: advancing the field.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,24(9), pp.1737-1743. Vanhala, M. and Ritala, P., 2016. HRM practices, impersonal trust and organizational innovativeness.Journal of Managerial Psychology,31(1), p.95.

Sunday, April 5, 2020

Speech Recognition free essay sample

Speech is the vocalized form of human Harvery Fletcher and Homer Dudley communication. It is based upon the ?rmly established the importance of the syntactic combination of lexicals and signal spectrum for reliable identi? cation names that are drawn from very large of the phonetic nature of a speech sound. (usually about 10,000 different words) Following the convention established by vocabularies. Each spoken word is these two outstanding scientists, most created out of the phonetic combination modern systems and algorithms for of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech recognition are based on the  speech sound units. These vocabularies, concept of measurement of the (time- the syntax which structures them, and varying) speech power spectrum (or its their set of speech sound units differ, variants such as the cepstrum), in part creating the existence of many thousands due to the fact that measurement of the of different types of mutually unintelligible power spectrum from a signal is relatively human languages [1]. We will write a custom essay sample on Speech Recognition or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page easy to accomplish with modern digital The speech is the quintessential form of signal processing techniques. Due the human communication, is what has drive increased on the processing power at the  the human race so far, talking about it on CPU on the modern computers this task technology is also and important subject become more and more every day, to study. On 1874, the experiments allowing to concentrated on the task of conduced by Alexander Graham Bell interpreting the speech and responding to proves that the frequency harmonics from actions from it than to await for an electrical signal can be divided, this processing the speech patterns. was the foundation that later on leads to The Problem with Automatic Speech the digitalization of the speech, entering. Recognition (ARS) is in writing computer  on the Speech Recognition era. programs that can comprehend a sound 1 wave and reproduced the same spectrogram or a spectrum analyzer, sequence of words that a person would though in vowels spoken with a high hear when listening to the same sound, fundamental frequency, as in a female or this means de? ne an association child voice, the frequency of the between the acoustic features of sounds resonance may lie between the widely- and the words people perceive. spread harmonics and hence no peak is visible. Speech Recognizers In 1952, Davis, Biddulph, and Balashek The ? st attempts to design systems for  of Bell Laboratories built a system for automatic speech recognition were isolated digit recognition for a single mostly guide by the theory of acoustic- speaker, using the formant frequencies phonetics. That is a sub? eld of phonetics measured (or estimated) during vowel which deals with acoustic aspects of regions of each digit [2], this system work speech sounds. Acoustic phonetics with the formant trajectories along the investigates properties like the mean dimensions of the ? rst and the second squared amplitude of a waveform, its formant frequencies for each of the ten duration, its fundamental frequency, or  digits, one-nine and 0, respectively. other properties of its frequency. These trajectories served as the spectrum, and the relationship of these â€Å"reference pattern† for determining the properties to other branches of phonetics, identity of an unknown digit utterance as and to abstract linguistic concepts like the best matching digit. phones, phrases, or utterances [3]. In another early recognition system Fry Another important term during the and Denes, at University College in process of speech recognition is the England, built a phoneme recognizer to formant o formants that in speech  recognize 4 vowels and 9 consonants. By science and phonetics, is used to mean incorporating statistical information about an acoustic resonance of the human allowable phoneme sequences in vocal tract. It is often measured as an English, they increased the overall amplitude peak in the frequency phoneme recognition accuracy for words spectrum of the sound, using a consisting of two or more phonemes, this through the supplying of the system with 2 previous entries or by basically training programming, in numerous variant forms the system to know the vowels and the as the Viterbi algorithm, this one is a  consonants by repetition as we do now dynamic programming algorithm for with the neural networks. This work ?nding the most likely sequence of marked the ? rst use of statistical syntax hidden states – called the Viterbi path – (at the phoneme level) in automatic that results in a sequence of observed speech recognition [2]. events, especially in the context of An alternative to the use of a speech Markov information sources and hidden segmenter was the concept of adopting a Markov models, has become an non-uniform time scale for aligning indispensable technique in automatic speech patterns. This concept started to speech recognition. In speech-to-text gain acceptance in the 1960’s through (speech recognition), the acoustic signal the work Speech Recognition by Feature is treated as the observed sequence of Abstraction Techniques by Tom Martin at events, and a string of text is considered RCA Laboratories in witch he recognized to be the hidden cause of the acoustic the need to deal with the temporal non- signal. The Viterbi algorithm   the uniformity in repeated speech events and most likely string of text given the suggested a range of solutions, including acoustic signal [4].  detection of utterance endpoints, which 4. Hidden Markov Model greatly enhanced the reliability of the The widespread popularity of the HMM recognizer performance and Speech framework can be attributed to its simple Discrimination by Dynamic Programming algorithmic structure, which is straight- by Vintsyuk in the Soviet Union, proposed forward to implement, and to its clear the use of dynamic programming for time performance superiority over alternative alignment between two utterances in recognition structures. As part of this a order to derive a meaningful assessment speech-recognition task is often  of their similarity. Others proposed taxonomized according to its different methods like dynamic time requirements in handling speci? c or warping, in speech pattern matching nonspeci? c talkers (speaker-dependent Since the late 1970’s, mainly due to the vs. speaker-independent) and in publication by Sakoe and Chiba, dynamic 3 accepting only isolated utterances or multiple acoustic features at a single ?uent speech (isolated word vs. point in time in a way that has not connected word). Systems based on previously been exploited in discrete- HMM have been demonstrated to be able  observation Hidden Markov Models. to achieve 96% word accuracy. These 6. Conclusion results sometimes rival human The DBN and HMM are the biggest ways performance and thus, of course, af? rm of working with Automatic Speech the potential usefulness of an automatic Recognition, those are the precursors of speech-recognition system in designated the neural networks that now a days are applications[7]. trying to make the switch of the old We also have to take in consideration systems that still pretty accurate. when we are talking about Hidden Markov Model, that this one is, one of the  most simple Dynamic Bayesian Networks, so using a more complex DBN we can achieve better result, just because the complexity found on those networks. Dynamic Bayesian Networks Over the last twenty years, probabilistic emerged as the method of choice for large-scale speech recognition tasks in two dominant forms: hidden Markov models (Rabiner b: Juang 1993), and neural networks with explicitly probabilistic interpretations (Bourlard Morgan 1994; Robinson Fallside 1991) [6]. This change is mainly due the fact that Dynamic Bayesian Networks are able to model the correlations among

Sunday, March 8, 2020

What to Do and Not Do to Make More Money When the Work Dries Up

What to Do and Not Do to Make More Money When the Work Dries Up As I close in on 14 years of full-time freelancing, I find that now and then work can suddenly dry up. Whether the high-paying kind of work that I enjoy offers returns depends on how I respond to these lulls. I used to panic and go after any and all work that I could find. This so-called work included the cheapest lowball offers in and outside my niche, accepting any style, genre and subject matter. I was desperate and looked and acted it. I attracted the worst side of this business. I lost much of my confidence in getting high-quality, high-paying work again. After about two or three weeks of this behavior, my plate would fill with bad, low-paying gigs. Then, as luck would have it, a flood of my normal, high-paying work would come in too. Now I had twice the work I could handle, half of which I didnt want. I couldnt turn the good work down, and I couldnt ignore my responsibility to complete the other work I had committed to. I have since learned to spend those two- or three-week periods calmly, patiently and confidently going after the best work I possibly could. I did so with patience, not letting anyone know my situation, not acting or appearing desperate. Now at the end of such periods, there is no crap to deal with when my luck turns around. I now live and work with the confidence that every time such periods come along, if I respond in a confident manner, in lieu of fearful and desperate, everything will return to normal in a few weeks. Let me elaborate on what I do during those typically two- to three- week periods to bring a rush of new work in. First, I approach existing editors, asking them as to how they are doing and taking a genuine interest in them, both personally and professionally. I drop them an email with tips and leads or open up a discussion on topics that interest them. If that doesnt lead to an assignment, I re-read the publication and competing publications, and I look for unanswered questions and other material that may be the impetus for new pitches. Then I write longer, better and more detailed pitches than I typically do for these editors I already know. I think they respect the additional effort and commitment to the project. And the more they can see upfront, the more convincing my argument that I can finish a great story. I do likewise with new-to-me editors, but again only those with the best work and pay rates. I put together well-considered letters of introduction and samples to go with great story pitches. The more excited I am about a story, and the more research I have done to develop it, the easier it is for editors to become interested. Here is the critical theme in all this: The more you need the work, the more serious and committed you have to be. You have to make your biggest investment, your strongest commitment, and demonstrate extensive preparation in your proposals in order to get the work. More than that, show your best creative writing chops in the process. Write things that are genuinely profound in unique ways. Speak about subjects in a manner no one has ever done before. Dont be afraid to cut against the grain a little bit. But dont let them smell your fear. That does nobody any good.

Friday, February 21, 2020

The truth in lending act Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The truth in lending act - Research Paper Example Over the passage of time, lenders including the banks looked for and retrieved different kinds of exceptions that put them in a position where they could charge the consumers the fees that were not part of the APR or were not disclosed through the APR to the consumers. The egregiousness of this practice can be estimated from the fact that a lender in the case between NCAS of Delaware and the Pennsylvania Department of Banking could legally claim a certain percentage of the APR while the actual percentage of the cost of loan was considerably higher. An in-depth analysis of the TILA suggests that it has failed as an act to provide the Americans with protection against the deceptive lending practices. Case Study: Pennsylvania Department of Banking v. NCAS of Delaware This case started in Pennsylvania’s Commonwealth Court. The opinion of the trial court was taken on 31 July 2007. The opinion of the trial court did not follow a bench trial and included a decision over the pretrial motions of the defendant and the plaintiff. The plaintiff had moved for an injunction and summary judgment thus requiring the defendant to desist while the defendant decided to go for the summary judgment. On 20 March 2008, Pennsylvania’s Supreme Court gave its decision over the case between Pennsylvania Department of Banking and the NCAS of Delaware. This case includes a payday loans lender. Payday loans can be defined as short term loans that are given usually in small amounts but the interest rates charged on them are substantially high. In this case, the APR advertised by the lender was 5.98 per cent that was indeed, the loan’s APR’s accurate calculation by law (McGingley, 2013). Although this was a low rate and was reasonable, the company added an additional monthly participation fee to the rate worth $149.50 on monthly basis. Although this fee of participation does not have to be included in the APR’s calculation, yet the usury law of Pennsylvaniaâ €™s Section 3A prohibits such forms from charging fees that sum up to over 6 per cent. Nevertheless, the true borrowing cost in this case was nearly 368 per cent. Analysis and discussion The finance charge’s centrality imparts the need for accurate reflection of the loan’s true total cost by this amount. It is important that all lenders uniformly calculate this amount so that the fundamental objective of the TILA of offering a simple method of drawing a comparison between the loan costs to the consumers can be achieved. Unfortunately, however, the integrity of the APR and the finance charge has been challenged in the USA. Paradoxically, certain provisions within the TILA have played a role in challenging the integrity of the finance charge and the APR, though the actions of the Federal Reserve Board also contributed to the weakening of the system. The TILA provides for the exceptions by a limited number; excluded charges which may not necessarily be disclosed or ma de part of the stated charge of finance. This is inclusive of the fees for the preparation of documents, carrying out the surveys of property, appraisals, escrow and notary fees, insurance, and credit reports. The TILA authorized the Federal Reserve Board to develop more exceptions as it deems necessary in order to effectuate the TILA’s purposes. The Regulation Z issued by the Federal Reser